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How to compare two feature classes on one field?

How to compare two feature classes on one field?


I have two feature classes: an old one and a new one that I want to compare.

Both feature classes have the same field structure and have a reference field 'ID' whose values are the same, except in the case of deleted rows or added rows.

To compare, I used the tool 'Feature Compare' using 'ID' as a sort field. The output text is very useful as both attributes and geometry are compared, but the comparison is done on feature that share the same 'OBJECTID'.

How could I use this tool using 'ID' instead?

Alternatively, I tried to join my feature classes on the attribute 'ID' but the result is not easy to analyse as I want to know every modified, added and deleted features.


A solution is to write a python script/tool to compare on one or several fields, which prints every difference found (field values or shape difference).


Mount Mansfield: Mapping the Alpine Tundra

Mount Mansfield, Vermont, as seen through the eyes of Google Earth.

Editor’s Preface: Cale is back, this time with a look at the alpine tundra of Mount Mansfield. Download and check out the data from this work at the VT Open Geodata Portal here (metadata here). It makes a nice compliment to lower-resolution NLCD land cover datasets, and an even better one to the high-resolution (0.5m) 2016 statewide land cover set soon available from VCGI:


How do you identify the different types of information system in an organization?

The different types of information system that can be found are identified through a process of classification. Classification is simply a method by which things can be categorized or classified together so that they can be treated as if they were a single unit. There is a long history of classification of things in the natural world such as plants or animals, however, Information systems are not part of the 'natural' world they are created and acquired by man to deal with particular tasks and problems. The classification of information systems into different types is a useful technique for designing systems and discussing their application it not however a fixed definition governed by some natural law. A 'type' or category of information system is simply a concept, an abstraction, which has been created as a way to simplify a complex problem through identifying areas of commonality between different things. One of the oldest and most widely used systems for classifying information systems is known as the pyramid model this is described in more detail below.


C omparing Two Countries Essay Outline

Introduction

Thesis:There are many differences between Japan and China in terms of their food, culture, natural resources, and population distribution.

Paragraph 1:

The first major difference between China and Japan comes in their food.

  • “While the Chinese food is spicy and involves a lot of frying and cooking, the Japanese food is far less spicy, and has very subtle flavors compared to other local foods in Asia.”
  • China has diverse food owing to its large geographic extent.
  • On the other hand, Japan has an isolated food culture essentially because it is an island. They prefer seafood on a large scale.
  • There is minimal use of oil in preparing food and therefore the food is considered healthier.

Paragraph 2:

China and Japan also significantly differ in their culture.

  • The culture of China has a lot of heterogeneity owing to the fact that the country has been exposed to several various nationalities in addition to having a long history.
  • Some of the notable nationalities that have contributed to this heterogeneity are Europeans and Indians.
  • In contrast, Japan has an isolated culture because, according to its recorded history, the country has not experienced significant external influence.
  • Coupled with its considerably small size, this lack of external influence by Japan has ensured that its culture is more homogenous.

Paragraph 3:

Another source of difference between China and Japan is the countries’ respective natural resources.

  • China has many various natural resources probably because of its vastness.
  • These resources include arable land, uranium, rare earth elements, zinc, lead, aluminum, magnetite, vanadium, molybdenum, manganese, antimony, tungsten, tin, mercury, natural gas, petroleum, iron ore, and coal.
  • Inversely, the mineral resources in Japan are negligible. Apart from having fish and fishing grounds, the country has virtually no resources of natural energy.
  • This fact has made Japan the largest liquefied natural gas and coal importer in the world. It also ranks the second in oil importation worldwide.

Paragraph 4:

China and Japan differ in their population distribution.

  • In China, the eastern half of the country has the overwhelming majority of the population.
  • The west of China, in contrast to the east, has sparse population.
  • On the other hand, Japan has a third of its population living around and in Tokyo, the capital city. A significant percentage of the population lives in Kanto plain around Tokyo.
  • The coast of the country bears the larger population density of the country.

China and Japan are countries found in Asia with the former having a vast geographical area and the latter being comparatively far smaller. The countries share the feature of having a coastline, and closeness of the languages they speak. They however have respective distinctive features that define them as individual countries, including their respective foods, cultures, natural resources, and population distribution.


Using comparison/contrast for all kinds of writing projects

Sometimes you may want to use comparison/contrast techniques in your own pre-writing work to get ideas that you can later use for an argument, even if comparison/contrast isn’t an official requirement for the paper you’re writing. For example, if you wanted to argue that Frye’s account of oppression is better than both de Beauvoir’s and Bartky’s, comparing and contrasting the main arguments of those three authors might help you construct your evaluation—even though the topic may not have asked for comparison/contrast and the lists of similarities and differences you generate may not appear anywhere in the final draft of your paper.


Types, Features and Classes of IP Address

The IP address is a familiar term for most computer users. An IP address is the unique numerical address of a device in a computer network that uses Internet Protocol for communication. The IP address allow you to pinpoint a particular device from the billions of devices on the Internet. To send you a letter, someone needs your mailing address. In the same sense, one computer needs the IP address of another computer to communicate with it.

An IP address consists of four numbers each can contain one to three digits. These numbers are separated with a single dot (.). These four numbers can range from 0 to 255.

Types of IP addresses

The IP addresses can be classified into two. They are listed below.

Let us see each type in detail.

Static IP Addresses

As the name indicates, the static IP addresses usually never change but they may be changed as a result of network administration. They serve as a permanent Internet address and provide a simple and reliable way for the communication. From the static IP address of a system, we can get many details such as the continent, country, region and city in which a computer is located, The Internet Service Provider (ISP) that serves that particular computer and non-technical information such as precise latitude and longitude of the country, and the locale of the computer. There are many websites providing IP address lookups. You can find out your IP addresses at http://whatismyip.org/.

Dynamic IP Addresses

Dynamic IP address are the second category. These are temporary IP addresses. These IP addresses are assigned to a computer when they get connected to the Internet each time. They are actually borrowed from a pool of IP addresses, shared over various computers. Since limited number of static IP addresses are available, ISPs usually reserve the portion of their assigned addresses for sharing among their subscribers in this way.

Static IP addresses are considered as less secure than dynamic IP addresses because they are easier to track.

IP Version 4 and IP Version 6

The two versions of IP addresses currently running are IP versions 4 (IPv4) and IP versions 6 (IPv6). There are many features with these two versions.

IP Version 6

The IPv6 is the most recent version of Internet Protocol. As the Internet is growing rapidly, there is a global shortage for IPv4. IPv6 was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). IPv6 is intended to replace the IPv4. IPv6 uses a 128-bit address and it allows 2128 i.e. approximately 3.4×1038 addresses. The actual number is slightly smaller as some ranges are reserved for special use or not used. The IPv6 addresses are represented by 8 groups of four hexadecimal digits with the groups being supported by colons. An example is given below:

The features of IPv6

The main features of the IPv6 are listed below.

1) IPv6 provides better end-to-end connectivity than IPv4.

2) Comparatively faster routing.

3) IPv6 offers ease of administration than IPv4.

4) More security for applications and networks.

5) It provides better Multicast and Anycast abilities.

6) Better mobility features than IPv4.

7) IPv6 follows the key design principles of IPv4 and so that the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is smoother.

These are the key features of the IPv6 when compared to the IPv4. However, IPv6 has not become popular as IPv4.

IP Version 4

IP Version 4 (IPv4) was defined in 1981. It has not undergone much changes from that time. Unfortunately, there is a need of IP addresses more than IPv4 could supply.

IPv4 uses 32-bit IP address. So the maximum number of IP address is 2 32 —or 4,294,967,296.

This is a little more than four billion IP addresses. An IPv4 address is typically formatted as four 8-bit fields. Each 8-bit field represents a byte of the IPv4 address. As we have seen earlier, each fields will be separated with dots. This method of representing the byte of an IPv4 address is referred to as the dotted-decimal format. The bytes of the IPv4 is further classified into two parts. The network part and the host part.

Network Part

This part specifies the unique number assigned to your network. It also identifies the class of network assigned. The network part takes two bytes of the IPv4 address.

This is the part of the IPv4 address that you can assign to each host. It uniquely identifies this machine on your network. For all hosts on your network, the network part of the IP address will be the same and host part will be changing.

IP address and classes

The IP hierarchy contains many classes of the IP addresses. Broadly, the IPv4 addressing system is divided into five classes of IP address. All the five classes are identified by the first octet of the IP address.

The classes of IPv4 addresses

The different classes of the IPv4 address are the following:

Class A Address

The first bit of the first octet is always set to zero. So that the first octet ranges from 1 – 127. The class A address only include IP starting from 1.x.x.x to 126.x.x.x. The IP range 127.x.x.x is reserved for loop back IP addresses. The default subnet mask for class A IP address is 255.0.0.0. This means it can have 126 networks (2 7 -2) and 16777214 hosts (2 24 -2). Class A IP address format is thus: 0NNNNNNN.HHHHHHHH.HHHHHHHH.HHHHHHHH.

Class B Address

Here the first two bits in the first two bits is set to zero. Class B IP Addresses range from 128.0.x.x to 191.255.x.x. The default subnet mask for Class B is 255.255.x.x. Class B has 16384 (2 14 ) Network addresses and 65534 (2 16 -2) Host addresses. Class B IP address format is: 10NNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.HHHHHHHH.HHHHHHHH

Class C Address

The first octet of this class has its first 3 bits set to 110. Class C IP addresses range from 192.0.0.x to 223.255.255.x. The default subnet mask for Class C is 255.255.255.x. Class C gives 2097152 (2 21 ) Network addresses and 254 (2 8 -2) Host addresses. Class C IP address format is: 110NNNNN.NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.HHHHHHHH

Class D Address

The first four bits of the first octet in class D IP address are set to 1110. Class D has IP address rage from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. Class D is reserved for Multicasting. In multicasting data is not intended for a particular host, but multiple ones. That is why there is no need to extract host address from the class D IP addresses. The Class D does not have any subnet mask.

Class E Address

The class E IP addresses are reserved for experimental purpose only for R&D or study. IP addresses in the class E ranges from 240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.254. This class too is not equipped with any subnet mask.


Difference Between Compare and Contrast

Compare and contrast are words that are often used to talk about the similarities and differences between two things or objects. These two words are very commonly used.

Compare means to see the similarity and contrast means to see the difference. According to various dictionaries, compare means ‘to represent things or objects in respect of similarity’ and contrast means ‘to represent things in respect of differences.’

Apart from these meanings, one struggles to find any differences between the two. If a person is looking at the similarities between two objects or things, then he may be comparing the two. On the other hand, if a person is looking at the dissimilarity between two things or objects, then he may be contrasting the two.

The word compare has been derived from the Latin word ‘comparare’, which means ‘to liken or to compare.’ The word contrast has been derived from the Latin words ‘contra’ and ‘stare’, which means ‘against’ and ‘to stand.’ In Middle English, contrast was used for meaning ‘fight against’ or ‘to withstand’ in a battle. Contrast lost its sheen during the end of 17th century but was later adopted in art forms.

Compare is mainly used to demonstrate relative values of the objects in all qualities. When comparing two things or objects, one can see the divergent views which could make one better than the other.

1. Compare and contrast are words that are often used to talk about the similarities and differences between two things or objects.
2. Apart from the difference in their meaning, one struggles to find any differences between the two.
3. According to various dictionaries, compare means ‘to represent things or objects in respect of similarity’ and contrast means ‘to represent things in respect of differences.’
4. If a person is looking at the similarities between two objects or things, then he may be comparing the two. On the other hand, if a person is looking at the dissimilarity between two things or objects, then he may be contrasting the two.
5. Where compare emphasises the similar qualities, contrast emphasises the differences.
6. The word compare has been derived from the Latin word ‘comparare’, which means ‘to liken or to compare.’ The word contrast has been derived from the Latin word ‘contra’ and ‘stare’, which means ‘against’ and ‘to stand.’


Resources

In the examination a resource booklet is provided which is used to assess the students’ understanding and application of geographic skills and concepts. This may include a variety of resources such as maps, tables, diagrams, photographs, opinions. These will generally be about a particular geographic issue in a setting which could be from New Zealand or overseas.

The resources provided at level 1 are more straight forward that those at levels 2 and 3. For example, a topographic map at level 1 will be relatively easy to interpret. At level 3 topographic maps will be in their original state and be more complex to interpret. Complex satellite imagery will only be used at higher levels.

The examination text is appropriate to the particular level with material being significantly abridged for level 1 and more complex at level 3.

The complexity of geography skills

Certain basic skills are essential requirements at all levels.

Basic skills applicable at all levels

Mapping
Distance, use of six figure grid references, use of latitude and longitude, compass direction, bearings, scale, area calculation, location of natural and cultural features, determination of height, cross sections, use of a key, précis map construction, recognition of relationships, application of concepts, interpretation of other geographic maps like weather maps, cartograms, choropleth maps.

Visuals
Interpretation of photographs, cartoons or diagrams including age-sex pyramids and models such as a wind rose interpreting and completing a continuum to show value positions.

Graphing
Interpretation and construction of bar graphs (single and multiple), line graphs (single and multiple), pie and percentage bar graphs, scattergraphs, dot distribution, pictograms, and climate graphs

Tables
Recognition of patterns, simple calculation such as mean, mode, and conversion to percentages.

At level 3 the intention is for students to select and apply skills. This means that while the same skills are assessed as at level 2, students need to be able to select appropriate skills to answer questions. For example, students may be asked to give the location of a feature which requires them to use a combination of skills such as grid references, latitude and longitude, or direction and distance from another feature. They may be asked to describe the physical geography of a region which would draw on skills such as interpreting contour lines, cross sections, climate graphs and wind roses.

Some skills become more complex at higher levels. Others are more appropriate at higher levels only. These skills are indicated below. Level 1 examines basic skills only, while at level 2 and 3, both basic and complex skills may be assessed.

Differentiation between basic and complex skills

Simple linear scale measurement on a map.

Recognition of different scales.

Changed ratio scale with size.

Converting linear to ratio or vice versa.

Use of other scales apart from distance ie time.

Not all statistics given may be necessary for completion of tasks.

Percentage change calculations.

The complexity of the examination questions

Questions at level 1 are related to the use of a specific resource only. At level 2, one or two resources may have to be used to answer questions. At level 3 several resources from throughout the resource booklet may be used to apply a skill.

Instruction words will also differentiate the levels where longer written explanations are required. At level 1 most of the questions will be based around describe or describe and explain. At level 2 and 3 terms such as justify and evaluate may be used.

Guidance given to students in the examination

Candidates are given more direction at level 1 with less guidance at level 3.

For example, at level 1 a candidate will be told which type of graph to construct and be provided with axes or asked to complete a graph that has been partially done, for example, complete the rainfall for a climate graph where the temperature is given.

At level 2 candidates will be told the type of graph to construct within a given space, whilst at level 3 candidates will have to select which is the appropriate graph to construct using more complex resources.

At level 1 candidates will have to locate major features on a précis map at level 2 to locate features where some outline is provided and by level 3 only a minimal outline is provided for guidance.

Assessing geographic concepts

Conceptual understandings underpin the knowledge and skills assessed by the achievement standards (NCEA level 1 to 3) and scholarship performance standards. Students are required to understand how these concepts can be applied to new settings, as well as applying them to the contexts they have studied specifically.

Differentiation of concepts applies across the levels. A student’s understanding of a concept at level 1 will be at a more basic level than an understanding at levels 2 or 3.

As students build geographical knowledge and skills, they will approach these concepts in different ways. By revisiting them in different contexts, they will come to refine and embed understandings.


How to Write a Comparative Analysis

Throughout your academic career, you'll be asked to write papers in which you compare and contrast two things: two texts, two theories, two historical figures, two scientific processes, and so on. "Classic" compare-and-contrast papers, in which you weight A and B equally, may be about two similar things that have crucial differences (two pesticides with different effects on the environment) or two similar things that have crucial differences, yet turn out to have surprising commonalities (two politicians with vastly different world views who voice unexpectedly similar perspectives on sexual harassment).

In the "lens" (or "keyhole") comparison, in which you weight A less heavily than B, you use A as a lens through which to view B. Just as looking through a pair of glasses changes the way you see an object, using A as a framework for understanding B changes the way you see B. Lens comparisons are useful for illuminating, critiquing, or challenging the stability of a thing that, before the analysis, seemed perfectly understood. Often, lens comparisons take time into account: earlier texts, events, or historical figures may illuminate later ones, and vice versa.

Faced with a daunting list of seemingly unrelated similarities and differences, you may feel confused about how to construct a paper that isn't just a mechanical exercise in which you first state all the features that A and B have in common, and then state all the ways in which A and B are different. Predictably, the thesis of such a paper is usually an assertion that A and B are very similar yet not so similar after all. To write a good compare-and-contrast paper, you must take your raw data—the similarities and differences you've observed—and make them cohere into a meaningful argument. Here are the five elements required.

Frame of Reference . This is the context within which you place the two things you plan to compare and contrast it is the umbrella under which you have grouped them. The frame of reference may consist of an idea, theme, question, problem, or theory a group of similar things from which you extract two for special attention biographical or historical information. The best frames of reference are constructed from specific sources rather than your own thoughts or observations. Thus, in a paper comparing how two writers redefine social norms of masculinity, you would be better off quoting a sociologist on the topic of masculinity than spinning out potentially banal-sounding theories of your own. Most assignments tell you exactly what the frame of reference should be, and most courses supply sources for constructing it. If you encounter an assignment that fails to provide a frame of reference, you must come up with one on your own. A paper without such a context would have no angle on the material, no focus or frame for the writer to propose a meaningful argument.

Grounds for Comparison . Let's say you're writing a paper on global food distribution, and you've chosen to compare apples and oranges. Why these particular fruits? Why not pears and bananas? The rationale behind your choice, the grounds for comparison, lets your reader know why your choice is deliberate and meaningful, not random. For instance, in a paper asking how the "discourse of domesticity" has been used in the abortion debate, the grounds for comparison are obvious the issue has two conflicting sides, pro-choice and pro-life. In a paper comparing the effects of acid rain on two forest sites, your choice of sites is less obvious. A paper focusing on similarly aged forest stands in Maine and the Catskills will be set up differently from one comparing a new forest stand in the White Mountains with an old forest in the same region. You need to indicate the reasoning behind your choice.

Thesis . The grounds for comparison anticipates the comparative nature of your thesis. As in any argumentative paper, your thesis statement will convey the gist of your argument, which necessarily follows from your frame of reference. But in a compare-and-contrast, the thesis depends on how the two things you've chosen to compare actually relate to one another. Do they extend, corroborate, complicate, contradict, correct, or debate one another? In the most common compare-and-contrast paper—one focusing on differences—you can indicate the precise relationship between A and B by using the word "whereas" in your thesis:

Whereas Camus perceives ideology as secondary to the need to address a specific historical moment of colonialism, Fanon perceives a revolutionary ideology as the impetus to reshape Algeria's history in a direction toward independence.

Whether your paper focuses primarily on difference or similarity, you need to make the relationship between A and B clear in your thesis. This relationship is at the heart of any compare-and-contrast paper.

Organizational Scheme . Your introduction will include your frame of reference, grounds for comparison, and thesis. There are two basic ways to organize the body of your paper.

  • In text-by-text, you discuss all of A, then all of B.
  • In point-by-point, you alternate points about A with comparable points about B.

If you think that B extends A, you'll probably use a text-by-text scheme if you see A and B engaged in debate, a point-by-point scheme will draw attention to the conflict. Be aware, however, that the point-by- point scheme can come off as a ping-pong game. You can avoid this effect by grouping more than one point together, thereby cutting down on the number of times you alternate from A to B. But no matter which organizational scheme you choose, you need not give equal time to similarities and differences. In fact, your paper will be more interesting if you get to the heart of your argument as quickly as possible. Thus, a paper on two evolutionary theorists' different interpretations of specific archaeological findings might have as few as two or three sentences in the introduction on similarities and at most a paragraph or two to set up the contrast between the theorists' positions. The rest of the paper, whether organized text- by-text or point-by-point, will treat the two theorists' differences.

You can organize a classic compare-and-contrast paper either text-by-text or point-by-point. But in a "lens" comparison, in which you spend significantly less time on A (the lens) than on B (the focal text), you almost always organize text-by-text. That's because A and B are not strictly comparable: A is merely a tool for helping you discover whether or not B's nature is actually what expectations have led you to believe it is.

Linking of A and B. All argumentative papers require you to link each point in the argument back to the thesis. Without such links, your reader will be unable to see how new sections logically and systematically advance your argument. In a compare-and contrast, you also need to make links between A and B in the body of your essay if you want your paper to hold together. To make these links, use transitional expressions of comparison and contrast (similarly, moreover, likewise, on the contrary, conversely, on the other hand) and contrastive vocabulary (in the example below, Southerner/Northerner).

As a girl raised in the faded glory of the Old South, amid mystical tales of magnolias and moonlight, the mother remains part of a dying generation. Surrounded by hard times, racial conflict, and limited opportunities, Julian, on the other hand, feels repelled by the provincial nature of home, and represents a new Southerner, one who sees his native land through a condescending Northerner's eyes.

Copyright 1998, Kerry Walk, for the Writing Center at Harvard University


Advantages and Disadvantages Single-Entry Compared With Double-Entry Systems?

T he positive and negative aspects of single-entry accounting are readily apparent in comparison with the alternative approach, double-entry accounting.

Single-Entry System Advantages

Single-entry accounting has the significant advantage of simplicity over double-entry accounting.

  • People with little or no background in finance or accounting readily understand single-entry records and reports.
  • Small companies can use single-entry systems without hiring a professional accountant or bookkeeper.
  • The single-entry approach does not require complicated accounting software. The examples above show, for instance, that firms can create and maintain a single-entry system easily in a written notebook or simple spreadsheet.

Single-Entry System Disadvantages

Single-entry accounting provides insufficient records and insufficient control for public companies and other organizations that must publish audited financial statements. Nor can it—by itself—give owners and managers crucial information for evaluating the company's financial position.

Some of the important differences between the two approaches illustrate the disadvantages of the single-entry approach:

Double-Entry System: Built-in Error Checking

A double-entry system provides several forms of error checking that are absent in a single-entry system. In the double-entry system, every financial transaction results in both a debit(DR) in one account and an equal, offsetting credit (CR) in another account. For each reporting period, total debits must equal total credits. That is:

Moreover, a single-entry system works so that the Balance sheet equation always holds:

Assets = Liabilities + Equities

These equations together are known as the accounting equation. Any departure from these principles in a double-entry system is a signal that account histories include an error.

Single-Entry System: Error Checking Is Not Built In

This kind of error checking is missing from the single-entry system.

If the single-entry bookkeeper mistakenly enters, say, a revenue inflow as $10,000 when the correct value is $1,000, the error may go unnoticed until the firm receives a bank statement with an unexpected low account balance.

In a double-entry system, however, the $1,000 cash deposit entry (a debit to an asset account, cash on hand) will be accompanied by another entry recognizing the source, for example, a credit to a liability account (e.g., bank loan) or a credit to another asset account (accounts receivable). And, if the firm omits the second entry, the sums of credits and debits in the system would differ, immediately revealing the error.

Double-Entry System: Focus on Revenues, Expenses, Assets, Liabilities, and Equities.

A double-entry system keeps the firm's entire "Chart of accounts" in view. This chart for a double-entry system has, in fact, five kinds of accounts in two categories:

  • Firstly, Income statement accounts: (1) Revenue accounts, and (2) expense accounts.
  • Secondly, Balance sheet accounts: (3) Asset accounts, (4) Liability accounts, and (5) Equity accounts.

All transactions in a double-entry system result in entries in at least two different accounts. When the company receives cash through a bank loan, the double-entry system records:

  • Firstly, a debit (DR) for an asset account, e.g., Cash on hand. For an asset account, a DR is an increase.
  • Secondly, a credit (CR) to a liability account, e.g., bank loans. A CR to a liability account increases its balance.

Single-Entry System: Focus on Revenues and Expenses Only

A single-entry system tracks Revenues and Expenses but does not monitor Assets, Liabilities, or Owners Equities.

With a single-entry system, however, the company may receive cash from a bank loan and record that as incoming cash. In this case, however, there is no easy way to register the corresponding increase in liability (bank loan debt).

Singly-Entry Systems Do Not Support Accrual Accounting

Single-entry systems, moreover, work hand-in-glove with cash basis accounting, where firms record inflows and outflows only when cash, in fact, flows. Also, single-entry systems cannot easily support the alternative, accrual accounting. When the delivery of goods and services and customer payments come at different times, for instance, accrual accounting provides mechanisms for implementing the matching concept. Consequently, the firm recognizes revenues and the expenses that brought them in the same accounting period.

If the vendor delivery and the customer payment fall in different time periods, however, the single-entry system has no way of matching the two events. The single-entry system, therefore, can present a misleading picture of earnings for either period.

In Conclusion: Single-Entry Accounting is Inadequate For Public Companies

These difficulties make it extremely difficult&mdashif not impossible&mdashto build a single-entry system that conforms to GAAP requirements in most countries (Generally accepted accounting principles). This lack may not concern sole proprietorships, partnerships, or small privately-held corporations. For such firms, the accounting system must support only the tax and employment reporting requirements.

It is nearly impossible to build a single-entry system, however, that by itself supports the reporting needs of public corporations (companies that sell shares of stock to the public). A single-entry system, in fact, is inadequate, for any firm that must report statements of income, financial position (Balance sheet), retained earnings, or cash flow ("Changes in financial position").

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